Date palm seed oil is among the precious vegetable oils with low yield, whose extraction is commonly done with organic solvents which cause serious problems. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of orange peel essential oil as biosolvent for date seed oil extraction. Green extraction was conducted by Soxhlet apparatus as well as by soaking and compared with the Soxhlet method using petroleum ether. The GC-MS analysis of orange peel essential oil confirmed its richness with limonene (94.31%), which justifies its usefulness as green solvent. The latter gave higher yields, the extracted bio-oil was light brown with pleasant odor, and the characteristics were consistent with international standards. Based on the GC profiles, obtained oils were similar using both solvents, and the major compounds were oleic and lauric acids. The bio-oil phenolic content and the antioxidant activity were high, and the major compounds were the protocatechuic, chlorogenic, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Gallic and -coumaric acids were the major compounds for oil extracted by petroleum ether.
In recent years, the use of date palm seeds oil (DPSO) has grown around the world especially in cosmetics manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries . This oil is classified among the precious vegetable oils owing to its richness in fatty acids and phenolic and antioxidant compounds. Furthermore, DPSO has multiple benefits on human health . In fact, Besbes et al.  have noted that, compared with olive oil, DPSO has higher oxidative stability. In addition, these authors have reported a good capacity of DPSO in the protection against UV light and therefore against cellular damage. Other studies revealed that date seed oils are good sources of α-tocotrienol , which is reported as an effective compound to reduce the breast cancer risk [5, 6], cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans .
All the steps are shown in Figure 1. Date seed powder was placed in a dark flask and homogenized with essential oil. After mixing for six hours at 45C, the mixture was centrifuged. The liquid phase was used to recover the essential oil and the DPSO was yielded.
Furthermore, the physical state of DPSO at 4C was different as only the oil obtained by petroleum ether became solid, while the others remained liquid. In fact, oils have different physical proprieties and some of them freeze at low temperature and cause trouble in the industry process . In the case of oils extracted from date palm seeds, the use of essential oil could be a good practice to avoid freeze problem. For olive oil, freezing temperature variability depends on variety and olive ripeness at processing. It can be concluded that extracted essential oil used as green solvent has slightly lightened the DPSO and affected its physical appearance.
The use of essential oil extracted from orange peel as green solvent demonstrated its ability to extract oil from date palm seeds. This extraction method represents a promising approach for bio-oil extraction from date seeds. Besides, the comparison studies proved that this green solvent extracted higher oil amount and significantly improved its quality. The results of this study would also have broader implications for the extraction of other liposoluble compounds from date seeds. Thanks to its polar nature, it is possible that the used green solvent would be applied to extract more bioactive compounds. However, further research investigations should be carried out to improve the yield and its physicochemical properties. Future work should focus on the analysis of semivolatile compounds that could remain in the oil after essential oil evaporation.
The desert date oil is extracted from the kernel of the desert date fruit. This tree species is heat and drought resistant therefore used to restore degraded area in many parts of Africa. Part of our mission is to work closely with producers to maintain the reproduction of the trees as they are not only an important source of revenue but also an environment protection.
The date seed is mainly composed of dietary fiber, protein, carbohydrates, phenols , and minerals (potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron). Such substances perform several functions from a biological point of view, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral activities .
Date seeds are also a good source of oil (5 to 13%), which is rich in phenolic compounds, tocopherols, and phytosterols [3,6,7,8,9]. Date seed oil has been studied by other authors, and its composition in vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids makes it valuable for food formulations [9,10]. The literature data confirm that date seed oil is an interesting source of important nutrients that have a very positive effect on human health.
The literature reported that the major components of date seed oil sterols were β-sitosterol, campesterol, and Δ5-avenasterol . Other minor sterols were cholesterol, stigmasterol, Δ5,24-stigmastadienol, Δ7-avenasterol, and Δ7-stigmastenol [9,25] (Table 2).
During solvent extraction, diffusion is the main mechanism. The seed and solvent come into contact; the solvent diffuses through the seed mass and extracts the available oil from broken oily cells. The oil is then separated from the solvents using a rotavapor . Many researchers and industrialists have used hexane as the extraction solvent due to its availability, great oil extractability (98%), and easy operation.
The utilization of UAE represents an innovative way of thus enhancing the extraction efficiency of bioactive substances from plants and seeds and increasing oil yield. Babaei et al.  suggested that UAE could be recognized for reducing extraction time and also for improving production efficiency. The extraction efficiency of UAE of seed oil was equal to or better than that of conventional extraction (Soxhlet) but with a remarkable reduction in extraction time . This fact has also been tested for extracting oil from date seeds , and it was concluded that UAE reduces the extraction time (75% less compared to the Soxhlet method), making it a more efficient method due to its low energy consumption (76.64% less than Soxhlet).
The defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are responsible for cellular oxidative damage, is not limited to skin care. In another study, Ben Abdallah et al.  tested the effects of date seed oil on human sperm motility and viability after in vitro H2O2-induced oxidative damage. They found that date seed oil has a protective effect on both sperm parameters, especially after 24 h incubation. All these studies highlighted the importance of incorporating natural products with high contents of antioxidants into the normal human diet and also into cosmetic and/or dietary supplements. Date seed oil can be considered a promising dietary product with proven antioxidant effects, particularly if extracted by non-contaminating and environmentally friendly procedures.
Besides being a tasty fruit, dates have amazing health benefits and are full of nutritional value with vitamins, minerals, and fiber. While being high in sugar, they are also high in calcium, sulfur, iron, potassium, phosphorous, manganese, copper, and even oil. Date seeds contain major nutrients like potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorous, but they also are loaded with essential fatty acids beneficial for our bodies. The dates have oil, but the seeds what have an even bigger content. According to Science Direct, date oil is extracted from the seeds and has an impressive composition of vitamins, nutrients, and essential fatty acids, including 50.10% oleic, 19.23% linoleic, and 10.24% lauric, 9.83% palmitic, and 7.51% stearic fatty acids.
Date seed oil is packed with nutrients, which nourish the hair follicles and keep hair at optimal growth and maintenance. This makes for stronger strands and a healthier scalp. This oil is wonderful for hair and scalp massages and you get one-stop shop with its ability to maintain a healthy scalp while strengthening the hair. It can be used by itself or in conjunction with other oils, and if wanting to buy some you may have better luck looking for it just as date oil. While finding products with date seed oil or date oil may be challenging, simply eating dates is another great way to harness their amazing abilities to keep your hair and scalp healthy and strong.
Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in various skin diseases through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of endogenous antioxidant systems. The administration of antioxidants is reportedly helpful, notably to enhance the healing process. To protect the skin against oxidative damages, we have studied the effect of new oil: \"date seed oil\" (DSO). This oil, may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants such as phenols and tocopherols.
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that DSO is an efficient extract that is able to prevent keratinocytes oxidative damage induced by H(2)O(2) exposure and may thus be a potential promising candidate, as a chemopreventive agent, in the development of keratinocytes-related pathologies.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of date seed oil (DSO) on epididymal sperm characteristics and testicular antioxidant enzymes in male mice. DSO was diluted into isotonic saline solution (0.9%) and different doses (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared. Fifty male mice were divided into five groups; in four groups DSO was given by intraperitoneal injection of oil solution for 28 days. The control group was injected by isotonic saline solution without DSO. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics (count, motility, viability and morphology) were assessed. In addition, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in testes. A significant increase in sperm count, motility and viability of all treated animal groups was observed when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Unlike, the percentage of abnormal sperm was significantly lower in all treated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in MDA levels and marked increase in SOD and CAT activities in mice treated with high doses of DSO (15 and 20%) were also noted. We suggest that DSO can improve the epididymal sperm quality and could ameliorate the testicular strategy defences. 59ce067264